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Treatment of airframe of new generation plane needs data of new-style cutting tool

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As composite material, titanium alloy and the material folding a layer that makes by two kinds of material applies mediumly in plane structural member increasingly grow in quantity, plane airframe manufacturing industry is occurrent tremendous change, the cutting treatment that also uses data of cutting tool of tall hardness, tall tenacity to need at the same time put forward to have the demand that challenges a gender. The change of airframe production technology the flight efficiency to raise a plane, reduce its lifecycle cost, aircraft manufacturer is using composite material and titanium alloy increasingly. For example, the 787 airframe with empty guest A350 will use Boeing for the most part composite material is made (press weight plan) . On market of business affairs plane, guest of a person of extraordinary powers is compared strange (Hawker Beechcraft) the Premier IA of the company airframe with Hawker 4000 plane will use composite material to make entirely; The wing of the EV-20 Vantage of Eviation company plane and airframe also will use complete composite material. The use of composite material drove a part incorporate and join, reduced the amount that requires fastener. But, the fastener that great majority is cancelled is belonged to " area fastener " -- the fastener of many small diameter that can machine with automation working procedure. Accordingly, the installing hole diameter that withholds the major fastener that come down and ply are bigger, become by a variety of material superposition, treatment difficulty is greater also. Because the contact between graphite composite material and aluminium may cause chemical electric current to corrode, and installing the structural member on graphite composite material is aluminium is made normally. Of these two kinds of material get it is very difficult to cut treatment, and them combination is after folding a layer, undertake difficulty becomes greater getting cutting machining. Accordingly, besides auger cut parameter and material of treatment convention work to differ beyond, still need to use different cutting tool data. The processes composite material of difficulty carbon fiber treatment difficulty of carbon fiber includes: (1) material has very tall abrasion, make the wear rate of cutting tool very high; (2) material has anisotropy (be combined by softer base and the horniness fiber that arrange by different way and arise) , mean cutting tool to must bear different cutting fights force; (3) plasticity base restricted cutting temperature; (4) when treatment enhances fiber, to obtain orderly orifice clean, need uses sharp cutting to cut edge geometry appearance and high rotate speed blade, high; (5) if cutting power is too great (be like puissant auger when cutting) , the nappe of workpiece may appear each detached phenomenon; (6) the meeting when treatment produces dust (is not to cut bits) , need uses vacuum aspiration or add note cooling fluid to try to control. The treatment difficulty with the peculiar place of stuff of alloy of treatment difficulty titanium of titanium alloy includes: (1) the stretch model amount of titanium is small, because cutting adds man-hour material to be pushed by cutting tool, next spring back, because this cutting tool needs to use bigger hind horn; (2) the thermal conductivity of titanium is poor, bring about cutting temperature very tall (the heat in metal cutting of 80 % is passed into cutting tool, and 50 % are only when cutting steel) ; (3) titanium is chemical below high temperature reactivity is strong, produce phenomenon of solder of be in harmony easily with cutting tool, create blade of cutting tool collapse and be no longer in force; (4) easy generation machines sclerotic phenomenon (it is especially when treatment of low feed rate) ; (5) high strength still can retain when temperature is elevatory; (6) generation section cuts bits, make cutting tool gets power circularly, easy happening the metal is fatigue; (7) when be being machined, the possibility that material surface damages is larger, meet thereby the fatigue life that appreciably lowers workpiece. Besides auger cut treatment these by different material compound outside the challenge of the new-style material that be together, current plane airframe installs conjugate to got the function that cuts treatment and quality to also pose new challenge: (1) need is in ply is gotten on the bigger composite material that fold a layer cut the hole with larger diameter; (2) to shorten airframe assembles time, right " pass " auger cut, do type or do type getting to cut nearly and efficient constructional demand increases increasingly; (3) although large-scale the application that processes with miniature automation increasingly grow in quantity, but in final ship-fitter foreword basically still uses pneumatic drilling machine; (4) the application of principle of seed profit treatment is increasing. Afore-mentioned these elements can shorten considerably the service life of cutting tool. Accordingly, to reduce every Kong Jia is versed in cost, improve productivity, use new cutting tool data with respect to need. In addition, assemble the flow time of working procedure finally to shorten, also must improve the service life of cutting tool. For example, the 787 target flow time that rig process finally are Boeing 3 days only; Man of Losk Heed horse assembles time of flow of working procedure target finally of II of company F-35 lightning is to be assembled everyday give a plane. Contrast with this, boeing 737 at present this flow time is 10 days (22 days are when 2000, the target henceforth is 8 days) ; The flow time of 777 is Boeing 25 days. Boeing the flow time of 787 can shorten, partial reason is will certain treatment the operation changed upriver process, each parts that reach ship-fitter order had installed all sorts of systems of the plane beforehand. But, what point out before no less than, bore is the treatment that challenge sex provides most in rigging process finally. Good cutting tool stuff generally speaking, the character of cutting tool material that we hope includes: (1) grain dimension is lesser, can make a sharper cutting blade thereby; (2) have tall hardness (include tall hot rigid) , can provide superior wear-resisting performance thereby; (3) have good tenacity (high tensile strength and rupture tenacity) , below the cutting strength effect that can change in trends thereby, the cutting blade that keeps sharp does not produce collapse blade or be out of shape; (4) have good hot conductibility, can make cutting area comes loose quickly thereby hot; (5) have good thermal stability, can make cutting tool maintains integrality below cutting high temperature thereby; (6) with workpiece inferior chemical affinity or reaction active are had between material. The actor bad degree of the character of avery kind of that place of cutting tool stuff needs depends on workpiece material. The requirement is identical kind cutting tool material has above all character are very difficult, accordingly, normally need undertakes between hardness and tenacity balance accepts or reject. But, these two kinds of character enhance polymer and aluminium to carbon fiber base the treatment of composite material is indispensable. Carbon fiber enhances composite material (like CFRP) auger cut treatment and auger cut timber more similar. The key of treatment is trimly cutting carbon fiber (be in especially the exit of aperture) , cutting tool needs to have the geometrical appearance of tall shearing force and very high cutting rate. CFRP still has tall abrasion, because material of this requirement cutting tool has extremely tall hardness (had better resemble diamond in that way) . Cutting titanium alloy also needs very tall shearing force, but the meeting below the tall cutting rate that wants in place of treatment composite material produces a large number of heat in metal cutting, the fatigue life that the treatment sclerosis that the titanium in the material that fold a layer may produce can lower aircraft component. In addition, titanium and material of major cutting tool have chemistry to add up to a gender in person. Accordingly, to the treatment of workpiece of most titanium alloy, cobaltic high-speed steel and hard alloy are the cutting tool data that basically uses. But, when processing composite material, these cutting tool material do not have the wearability that needs to lengthen place of cutting tool life. Go again when the blade of cutting tool cutting that is changed blunt by composite material abrasion when cutting titanium, can produce treatment sclerosis phenomenon, cutting tool also is met subsequently invalidation. Although also can achieve right result,machine titanium alloy with PCD cutting tool, but to prevent collapse blade, need cutting tool has better tenacity. In the material folding a layer of production plane airframe, besides employ composite material and titanium alloy beyond, use aluminium alloy or stainless steel possibly also, these material have the cutting demand that differs severally. The improvement of material of Nextpage cutting tool the domain progress as the times, processing technique is ceaseless and perfect, the material purify rate of rough machining and alloy of finish machining titanium also is rising ceaselessly. Can see, the improvement that titanium alloy machines the curve already became gently, explain its improve a space finite already. To make machine efficiency can rise further, use new processing technique with respect to need. It is considering titanium alloy and composite material in plane construction material the proportion that holds is larger and larger, the treatment efficiency that improves these data is crucial. It is to get below cut treatment composite material / the metal folds what the cutting tool material of the layer comes true likely to improve a domain: (1) hardness the material name with taller, better tenacity; (2) gradient function material (the different position in cutting tool is custom-built a different cutting function) ; (3) accept rice technology (accept rice structure) ; (4) different composition is combined (if blame is cobaltic kind of bond) ; (5) self-lubricating ability (can be used at doing type or do type cutting nearly) ; (6) inferior cutting tool cost of material; (7) inferior cutting tool is made and grind cost again; (8) improvement coating combines a method. Once the development measure of cutting tool material decided some kind of stuff that has applicable character, it is applicable to develop its the cutting tool material at actual production, can follow the following and radical move: (1) the theory of material of forecast of institute of notional development ① is integrated; The test and verify of ② material character. (2) try out: The cutting tool that the choice makes with this material is hand-in-hand razor blade of ① of travel cutting experiment; ② circle cutting tool. (3) the type of practical ① cutting tool of certain material; ② workpiece material; ③ cutting speed and feed limits. (4) commercial ① undertakes with having the kind of cost effectiveness batch is produced; ② sells a team to popularize a product to groom. This kind of time cycle that develops technological process may comparative long (solve hard when some technologies issue especially when) . From the development that exceeds coating of strong cutting tool chronological table can see, encountered a lot of obstacles possibly in developing a process. Accordingly, the correct application of supplier and cutting tool material connection rises is the key with commercial success of cutting tool material. Next issue is: Do these cutting tool material have enough is large market scale worth to develop? Market dimensions to future market of 10 years forecasts is: The production of the plane will have run-of-mill growth. The needs to make in the near future plane amount that labels the order statistic with the closest basis below: Business uses an aircraft: (1) consign used 2007: Boeing plane: 441 (value 29.5 billion dollar) ; Empty passenger plane: 453 (value 23.9 billion dollar) ; (2) accepted order 2007: Boeing plane: 1413; Empty passenger plane: 1341; (3) the order of keep long in stock (up to December 2007) : Boeing plane: 3427; Empty passenger plane: 3421; These two kinds of planes the specific amount of each model is as follows: ① Boeing 787 Dreamliner: It is 857 up to the order Feburary 2008, highest productivity is every months at least 10; A350 of ② empty guest: It is 370 up to the order Feburary 2008, highest productivity is every months 13. (4) near future market looks into (2007 ~ 2026) : 28600 business use 22700 ~ plane, value 2.

6 ~ 2.

8 trillion dollar. These two kinds of planes the specific amount of each model is as follows: ① cargo aircraft: Near future demand is 1980, the total demand during 2026 predicts 2007 ~ it is 4000, among them about 870 are new cargo aircraft, the others changes his costume or dress to use a plane; Plane of ② branch line: Near future demand is 2886, the total demand during 2026 predicts 2007 ~ it is 3700. Military airplane: (1) F/A-18E/F " super bumblebee " combat attack plane: To 2012, the plan demand of air force is 581, every value 57 million dollar, highest productivity is annual 48. (2) F-22 " bird of prey " battleplan: To 2010, only American order achieves 183 namely, every value 1.

500 million dollar, highest productivity is annual 32. (3) Eurofighter Typhoon " typhoon " battleplan: To the plan 2016 demand exceeds 700, every value makes an appointment with 51 million ~ 58 million dollar, highest productivity is annual 52. (4) F-35 atttacks battleplan jointly: To the whole world 2035 plan demand is 3173, every value restrains 50 million dollar, highest productivity is annual 48. A few near futures that the cutting tool performance improvement that uses at treatment of cutting of aviation manufacturing industry is under the performance improvement of cutting tool machine example: (1) machine example 1: When a business is machining a kind of fiber to enhance composite material workpiece with aircraft component supplier, get in ply with awl of hard alloy of a kind of whole for 0.

200 ″ (make an appointment with 5mm) the bore on material, every broach can be gotten only cut 150 ~ 200 aperture, because appear to unqualified fiber is torn off and must change,meet cutting tool. This supplier converts after broach of hard alloy of coating of diamond of a kind of new-style CVD, bore number rises 2200 opening considerably. Although the cost of new-style broach is 15 times of broach more vintage, but because broach life is lengthened, the frequency that change a knife decreases, handling time increases, because this still makes,every Kong Jia is versed in cost reduced 80 % . (2) machine example 2: When Losk Heed company is atttacking the envelope of composite material wing of battleplan to undertake juncture nap is machined jointly to F-35, the life of cutting cutting tool and cutting blade quality hard satisfactory. For this, developed cutting tool of coating of diamond of a kind of new-style CVD, life of its cutting tool (the linear length gauge with treatment) from 9 feet (only the 1/3 of cutting material ply) raise 57 feet (cutting material complete ply) , can machine envelope of a wing thereby with 2 of the cutting tool of 24mm razor blade. From this, every plane can obtain the cost effectiveness of 80 thousand dollar, for the 2783 F-35 opportunity for combat that makes to planning to be American market, predict to be able to save fund (reduce cost) amount to 2.

22.6 billion dollar. (3) machine example 3: The bridge of joist of superstratum cabin floor of empty guest A380 is made by CFRP composite material, on the aluminium alloy frame that needs to install its airframe. Be used formerly at machining this kind of CFRP and aluminium alloy to fold a layer not broach of coating whole hard alloy can machine 90 aperture only. After changing the hard alloy bit that uses coating of a kind of diamond, the treatment life of every broach raises 500 aperture above. As the example of a hypothesis, assume need is in composite material / aluminium alloy folds the aperture that 90 specific measure machine on the layer, if every raise the cost of broach to be 150 dollars, but can machine 20 ~ only 30 aperture, need to cost 3 ~ in treatment lieutenant general so the additional time of 5 times is used at changing broach, in addition, interrupt to reduce production as far as possible, the likelihood still needs the additional drilling machine that good bit already installed on its. If every raise the service life of broach to be able to achieve 100 aperture, although broach cost raises than before one times or more, still can reduce cost of labor of every Kong Jia, can shorten the time that machines flow. Considering constant to the market demand of the plane growth, and the use of the composite material on new-style plane and aluminium alloy is increasing, and the requirement assembles flow time shorter, the opportunity that improves cutting cutting tool is tremendous, proper,offer the cutting tool product with can more superior processability meantime. CNC Milling